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- THE MEASUREMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SELF-EFFICACY IN INTERVENTIONS THAT PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN ADULTS
- Bateman, Andre Godfrey
- Electronic Theses & Dissertations
This dissertation comprises two studies focused on the measurement of self-efficacy associated with physical activity-promoting interventions in adults. Recent research indicates that most adults do not achieve sufficient daily physical activity for health. The research also shows that adults with obesity are even less likely to engage in sufficient physical activity for health. Physical inactivity is associated with negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and is therefore a...
Show moreThis dissertation comprises two studies focused on the measurement of self-efficacy associated with physical activity-promoting interventions in adults. Recent research indicates that most adults do not achieve sufficient daily physical activity for health. The research also shows that adults with obesity are even less likely to engage in sufficient physical activity for health. Physical inactivity is associated with negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and is therefore a major public health concern. There is however evidence that certain motivational constructs, such as self-efficacy are associated with increased physical activity in adults. As a result, behavioral interventions utilizing these constructs as modifiable mediators of physical activity behavior have been employed to increase physical activity in different populations.Study 1 is a systematic review focused on examining the theoretical and measurement quality of physical activity self-efficacy scales in physical activity-promoting interventions for adults. The search strategy was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. One hundred sixteen studies were reviewed, from which the physical activity self-efficacy scales were identified and extracted. Of the scales identified, 14 were multi-item and five were single item scales. The systematic review uncovered that the identified scales had varying conceptual and measurement related properties despite having good administrative quality in general. The major issues identified with self-efficacy measurement were: (a) a lack of concordance between self-efficacy and physical activity measurement, (b) a lack of specified physical activity levels to which the self-efficacy measurements refer, (c) self-efficacy scales described with theoretically imprecise construct labels, (d) a lack of emphasis on essential conceptual properties of self-efficacy scales, (e) a lack of specification of the dimensionality of self-efficacy scales and (f) the use of single-item measures of self-efficacy. Essential conceptual and measurement related recommendations were made in response to these issues to improve the measurement of physical activity self-efficacy in physical activity-promoting interventions. Study 2 employed a latent variable approach to explore the dimensionality, temporal invariance, and external validity of responses to the self-efficacy to regulate physical activity scale (SERPA). The SERPA is a modified version of the barriers self-efficacy scale. This study analyzed data from the Well-Being and Physical Activity Study (WBPA; ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03194854). The WBPA consisted of 461 participants at baseline which decreased to 427 participants at 30 days post baseline. The WBPA deployed the Fun For Wellness (FFW) intervention. One objective of the FFW intervention was to promote physical activity in adults with obesity. A two-dimensional factor structure explained responses to the SERPA at baseline. Factor 1 was conceptualized as self-efficacy to regulate barriers to physical activity participation based on social considerations. Factor 2 was conceptualized as self-efficacy to regulate internally perceived barriers to physical activity participation. There was strong evidence for the effectiveness of the FFW intervention to exert a direct effect on the proposed two-dimensional structure of latent self-efficacy to regulate physical activity in adults with obesity at 30 days post-baseline.