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- Towards Robust and Secure Face Recognition : Defense Against Physical and Digital Attacks
- Deb, Debayan
- Electronic Theses & Dissertations
The accuracy, usability, and touchless acquisition of state-of-the-art automated face recognition systems (AFR) have led to their ubiquitous adoption in a plethora of domains, including mobile phone unlock, access control systems, and payment services. Despite impressive recognition performance, prevailing AFR systems remain vulnerable to the growing threat of face attacks which can be launched in both physical and digital domains. Face attacks can be broadly classified into three attack...
Show moreThe accuracy, usability, and touchless acquisition of state-of-the-art automated face recognition systems (AFR) have led to their ubiquitous adoption in a plethora of domains, including mobile phone unlock, access control systems, and payment services. Despite impressive recognition performance, prevailing AFR systems remain vulnerable to the growing threat of face attacks which can be launched in both physical and digital domains. Face attacks can be broadly classified into three attack categories: (i) Spoof attacks: artifacts in the physical domain (e.g., 3D masks, eye glasses, replaying videos), (ii) Adversarial attacks: imperceptible noises added to probes for evading AFR systems, and (iii) Digital manipulation attacks: entirely or partially modified photo-realistic faces using generative models. Each of these categories is composed of different attack types. For example, each spoof medium, e.g., 3D mask and makeup, constitutes one attack type. Likewise, in adversarial and digital manipulation attacks, each attack model, designed by unique objectives and losses, may be considered as one attack type. Thus, the attack categories and types form a 2-layer tree structure encompassing the diverse attacks. Such a tree will inevitably grow in the future. Given the growing dissemination of ``fake news” and "deepfakes", the research community and social media platforms alike are pushing towards generalizable defense against continuously evolving and sophisticated face attacks. In this dissertation, we first propose a set of defense methods that achieve state-of-the-art performance in detecting attack types within individual attack categories, both physical (e.g., face spoofs) and digital (e.g., adversarial faces and digital manipulation), then introduce a method for simultaneously safeguarding against each attack.First, in an effort to impart generalizability and interpretability to face spoof detection systems, we propose a new face anti-spoofing framework specifically designed to detect unknown spoof types, namely, Self-Supervised Regional Fully Convolutional Network (SSR-FCN), that is trained to learn local discriminative cues from a face image in a self-supervised manner. The proposed framework improves generalizability while maintaining the computational efficiency of holistic face anti-spoofing approaches (< 4 ms on a Nvidia GTX 1080Ti GPU). The proposed method is also interpretable since it localizes which parts of the face are labeled as spoofs. Experimental results show that SSR-FCN can achieve True Detection Rate (TDR) = 65% @ 2.0% False Detection Rate (FDR) when evaluated on a dataset comprising of 13 different spoof types under unknown attacks while achieving competitive performances under standard benchmark face anti-spoofing datasets (Oulu-NPU, CASIA-MFSD, and Replay-Attack).Next, we address the problem of defending against adversarial attacks. We first propose, AdvFaces, an automated adversarial face synthesis method that learns to generate minimal perturbations in the salient facial regions. Once AdvFaces is trained, it can automatically evade state-of-the-art face matchers with attack success rates as high as 97.22% and 24.30% at 0.1% FAR for obfuscation and impersonation attacks, respectively. We then propose a new self-supervised adversarial defense framework, namely FaceGuard, that can automatically detect, localize, and purify a wide variety of adversarial faces without utilizing pre-computed adversarial training samples. FaceGuard automatically synthesizes diverse adversarial faces, enabling a classifier to learn to distinguish them from bona fide faces. Concurrently, a purifier attempts to remove the adversarial perturbations in the image space. FaceGuard can achieve 99.81%, 98.73%, and 99.35% detection accuracies on LFW, CelebA, and FFHQ, respectively, on six unseen adversarial attack types.Finally, we take the first steps towards safeguarding AFR systems against face attacks in both physical and digital domains. We propose a new unified face attack detection framework, namely UniFAD, which automatically clusters similar attacks and employs a multi-task learning framework to learn salient features to distinguish between bona fides and coherent attack types. The proposed UniFAD can detect face attacks from 25 attack types across all 3 attack categories with TDR = 94.73% @ 0.2% FDR on a large fake face dataset, namely GrandFake. Further, UniFAD can identify whether attacks are adversarial, digitally manipulated, or contain spoof artifacts, with 97.37% classification accuracy.