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- IMPROVED DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF PHYTOPHTHORA SOJAE
- McCoy, Austin Glenn
- Electronic Theses & Dissertations
Phytophthora spp. cause root and stem rots, leaf blights and fruit rots on agricultural and economically important plant species. Symptoms of Phytophthora infected plants, particularly root rots, can be difficult to distinguish from other oomycete and fungal pathogens and often result in devastating losses. Phytophthora spp. can lie dormant for many years in the oospore stage, making long-term management of these diseases difficult. Phytophthora sojae is an important and prevalent pathogen of...
Show morePhytophthora spp. cause root and stem rots, leaf blights and fruit rots on agricultural and economically important plant species. Symptoms of Phytophthora infected plants, particularly root rots, can be difficult to distinguish from other oomycete and fungal pathogens and often result in devastating losses. Phytophthora spp. can lie dormant for many years in the oospore stage, making long-term management of these diseases difficult. Phytophthora sojae is an important and prevalent pathogen of soybean (Glycine max L.) worldwide, causing Phytophthora stem and root rot (PRR). PRR disease management during the growing season relies on an integrated pest management approach using a combination of host resistance, chemical compounds (fungicides; oomicides) and cultural practices for successful management. Therefore, this dissertation research focuses on improving the detection and management recommendations for Phytophthora sojae. In Chapter 1 I provide background and a review of the current literature on Phytophthora sojae management, including genetic resistance, chemical control compounds (fungicides; oomicides) and cultural practices used to mitigate losses to PRR. In my second chapter I validate the sensitivity and specificity of a preformulated Recombinase Polymerase Amplification assay for Phytophthora spp. This assay needs no refrigeration, does not require extensive DNA isolation, can be used in the field, and different qPCR platforms could reliably detect down to 3.3-330.0 pg of Phytophthora spp. DNA within plant tissue in under 30 minutes. Based on the limited reagents needed, ease of use, and reliability, this assay would be of benefit to diagnostic labs and inspectors monitoring regulated and non-regulated Phytophthora spp. Next, I transitioned the Habgood-Gilmour Spreadsheet (‘HaGiS’) from Microsoft Excel format to the subsequent R package ‘hagis’ and improved upon the analyses readily available to compare pathotypes from different populations of P. sojae (Chapter 3; ‘hagis’ beta-diversity). I then implemented the R package ‘hagis’ in my own P. sojae pathotype and fungicide sensitivity survey in the state of Michigan, identifying effective resistance genes and seed treatment compounds for the management of PRR. This study identified a loss of Rps1c and Rps1k, the two most widely plant Phytophthora sojae resistance genes, as viable management tools in Michigan and an increase in pathotype complexity, as compared to a survey conducted twenty years ago in Michigan (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5 I led a multi-state integrated pest management field trial that was performed in Michigan, Indiana, and Minnesota to study the effects of partial resistance and seed treatments with or without ethaboxam and metalaxyl on soybean stand, plant dry weights, and final yields under P. sojae pressure. This study found that oomicide treated seed protects stand across three locations in the Midwest, but the response of soybean varieties based on seed treatment, was variety and year specific. Significant yield benefits from using oomicide treated seed were only observed in one location and year. The effects of partial resistance were inconclusive and highlighted the need for a more informative and reliable rating system for soybean varieties partial resistance to P. sojae. Finally, in Chapter 6 I present conclusions and impacts on the studies presented in this dissertation. Overall, the studies presented provide an improvement to the detection, virulence data analysis, and integrated pest management recommendations for Phytophthora sojae.