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- Nanoengineered tissue scaffolds for regenerative medicine in neural cell systems
- Tiryaki, Volkan Mujdat
- Electronic Theses & Dissertations
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries present one of the most challenging problems. Regeneration in the mammal CNS is often limited because the injured axons cannot regenerate beyond the lesion. Implantation of a scaffolding material is one of the possible approaches to this problem. Recent implantations by our collaborative research group using electrospun polyamide nanofibrillar scaffolds have shown promising results in vitro and in vivo. The physical properties of the tissue scaffolds have...
Show moreCentral nervous system (CNS) injuries present one of the most challenging problems. Regeneration in the mammal CNS is often limited because the injured axons cannot regenerate beyond the lesion. Implantation of a scaffolding material is one of the possible approaches to this problem. Recent implantations by our collaborative research group using electrospun polyamide nanofibrillar scaffolds have shown promising results in vitro and in vivo. The physical properties of the tissue scaffolds have been neglected for many years, and it has only recently been recognized that significant aspects include nanophysical properties such as nanopatterning, surface roughness, local elasticity, surface polarity, surface charge, and growth factor presentation as well as the better-known biochemical cues.The properties of: surface polarity, surface roughness, local elasticity and local work of adhesion were investigated in this thesis. The physical and nanophysical properties of the cell culture environments were evaluated using contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. A new capability, scanning probe recognition microscopy (SPRM), was also used to characterize the surface roughness of nanofibrillar scaffolds. The corresponding morphological and protein expression responses of rat model cerebral cortical astrocytes to the polyamide nanofibrillar scaffolds versus comparative culture surfaces were investigated by AFM and immunocytochemistry. Astrocyte morphological responses were imaged using AFM and phalloidin staining for F-actin. Activation of the corresponding Rho GTPase regulators was investigated using immunolabeling with Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. The results supported the hypothesis that the extracellular environment can trigger preferential activation of members of the Rho GTPase family, with demonstrable morphological consequences for cerebral cortical astrocytes. Astrocytes have a special role in the formation of the glial scar in response to traumatic injury. The glial scar biomechanically and biochemically blocks axon regeneration, resulting in paralysis. Astrocytes involved in glial scar formation become reactive, with development of specific morphologies and inhibitory protein expressions. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dBcAMP) was used to induce astrocyte reactivity. The directive importance of nanophysical properties for the morphological and protein expression responses of dBcAMP-stimulated cerebral cortical astrocytes was investigated by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, and AFM. Nanofibrillar scaffold properties were shown to reduce immunoreactivity responses, while PLL Aclar properties were shown to induce responses reminiscent of glial scar formation. Comparison of the responses for dBcAMP-treated reactive-like and untreated astrocytes indicated that the most influential directive nanophysical cues may differ in wound-healing versus untreated situations.Finally, a new cell shape index (CSI) analysis system was developed using volumetric AFM height images of cells cultured on different substrates. The new CSI revealed quantitative cell spreading information not included in the conventional CSI. The system includes a floating feature selection algorithm for cell segmentation that uses a total of 28 different textural features derived from two models: the gray level co-occurance matrix and local statistics texture features. The quantitative morphometry of untreated and dBcAMP-treated cerebral cortical astrocytes was investigated using the new and conventional CSI, and the results showed that quantitative astrocyte spreading and stellation behavior was induced by variations in nanophysical properties.
- Directed information for complex network analysis from multivariate time series
- Liu, Ying
- Electronic Theses & Dissertations
Complex networks, ranging from gene regulatory networks in biology to social networks in sociology, havereceived growing attention from the scientific community. The analysis of complex networks employs techniquesfrom graph theory, machine learning and signal processing. In recent years, complex network analysis tools havebeen applied to neuroscience and neuroimaging studies to have a better understanding of the human brain. In thisthesis, we focus on inferring and analyzing the complex...
Show moreComplex networks, ranging from gene regulatory networks in biology to social networks in sociology, havereceived growing attention from the scientific community. The analysis of complex networks employs techniquesfrom graph theory, machine learning and signal processing. In recent years, complex network analysis tools havebeen applied to neuroscience and neuroimaging studies to have a better understanding of the human brain. In thisthesis, we focus on inferring and analyzing the complex functional brain networks underlying multichannelelectroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Understanding this complex network requires the development of a measureto quantify the relationship between multivariate time series, algorithms to reconstruct the network based on thepairwise relationships, and identification of functional modules within the network.Functional and effective connectivity are two widely studiedapproaches to quantify the connectivity between two recordings.Unlike functional connectivity which only quantifies the statisticaldependencies between two processes by measures such as crosscorrelation, phase synchrony, and mutual information (MI), effectiveconnectivity quantifies the influence one node exerts on anothernode. Directed information (DI) measure is one of the approachesthat has been recently proposed to capture the causal relationshipsbetween two time series. Two major challenges remain with theapplication of DI to multivariate data, which include thecomputational complexity of computing DI with increasing signallength and the accuracy of estimation from limited realizations ofthe data. Expressions that can simplify the computation of theoriginal definition of DI while still quantifying the causalityrelationship are needed. In addition, the advantage of DI overconventionally causality measures such as Granger causality has notbeen fully investigated. In this thesis, we propose time-laggeddirected information and modified directed information to addressthe issue of computational complexity, and compare the performanceof this model free measure with model based measures (e.g. Grangercausality) for different realistic signal models.Once the pairwise DI between two random processes is computed,another problem is to infer the underlying structure of the complexnetwork with minimal false positive detection. We propose to useconditional directed information (CDI) proposed by Kramer to addressthis issue, and introduce the time-lagged conditional directedinformation and modified conditional directed information to lowerthe computational complexity of CDI. Three network inferencealgorithms are presented to infer directed acyclic networks whichcan quantify the causality and also detect the indirect couplingssimultaneously from multivariate data.One last challenge in the study of complex networks, specifically in neuroscience applications, is to identifythe functional modules from multichannel, multiple subject recordings. Most research on community detection inthis area so far has focused on finding the association matrix based on functional connectivity, instead ofeffective connectivity, thus not capturing the causality in the network. In addition, in order to find a modularstructure that best describes all of the subjects in a group, a group analysis strategy is needed. In thisthesis, we propose a multi-subject hierarchical community detection algorithm suitable for a group of weightedand asymmetric (directed) networks representing effective connectivity, and apply the algorithm to multichannelelectroencephalogram (EEG) data.